Metal structures, types, installation rules

Long service life, manufacturability and versatility in construction. All these advantages are possessed by metal structures. Factory products are made from various grades of steels, metals and their compounds. The range of products is determined by industry standards, customer requests and project documentation for the facility under construction. According to the terms of reference, metal structures can be produced in a non-standard format.

The range of products is selected according to the type of buildings, objects and structures. Industry representatives prefer light products made from the appropriate types of alloys. Such forms are actively used in agriculture, construction of administrative and industrial buildings, special facilities.

Metal structures in construction

The main function of products is carrier. Metal structures form the basis of buildings, they are used to prepare the frame, arrange floors, create the external facade of structures and roofs. Unlike reinforced concrete, this type of building material is lighter in weight. At the same time, metal structures do not lag behind in strength, they are quickly manufactured according to the technical specifications and are also quickly assembled at the construction site. Ready-made molds provide reliability during operation and a long service life of the delivered objects.

Metal structures for the construction of prefabricated buildings

Among the popular structures used to accommodate the capacities of enterprises, storage areas and other needs are frame buildings. Prefabricated structures are assembled according to the project at factories. The final assembly of the object is carried out on site from partially finished molds. Various types of connections are used - bolted (anchors), using steel support plates, rivets and welding. Prefabricated buildings fully justify their name - they save time and other production resources. Technology based on metal structures is used for the construction of terminals, hangars, car services, shopping centers, warehouses.

Installation of metal structures for construction needs

Stair elements, barriers, embedded parts, gates and frames for balconies. These and other structures are used as ready-made forms for building needs. An order for the manufacture of products is placed at specialized plants according to the purpose and estimate for the future object.

Forged elements

Decorative metal products are no less popular in the construction industry. At the exit from the art forging enterprises, gates, gates and fences, balcony railings and railings, gazebos and even pieces of furniture are obtained. The original design is valued in the private sector, is actively used in the arrangement of administrative buildings.

Technological metal structures

Various support elements, capacitive equipment, stair railings and lifting mechanisms. Specialized products used as industrial process infrastructure are actively used in the installation, repair and reconstruction of existing production lines.

Stages of installation of steel structures

Installation of finished factory products is carried out in several stages:

  • Conducting a technical analysis of the upcoming construction. Before placing an order, it is necessary to carry out geological exploration work on the ground, to identify factors that have a negative impact on the operational characteristics of metal structures;
  • Design work. At this stage, a technical task is formed for placing an order for production. Agreed with the initiator of the construction, including a schedule for the installation of structures with the following applications: technological schemes for erection, statements on the volume of installation work, drawings of temporary elements and structures;
  • The stage of manufacturing metal structures. The necessary raw materials, blanks and templates are selected at the factory. Each of the parts that will go into the product is checked by the quality control service. Next, the assembly of metal structures and their individual elements is carried out. Upon readiness, the products undergo production control for compliance with the requirements of standards. Before leaving the factory, the products are subjected to additional processing, primed and painted. After marking, batches are sent to customers or replenish production stocks;
  • Installation of structures at the place of operation. In preparation for construction, the elements are delivered to the site, placed in temporary storage and assembled into intermediate forms. The main work consists in the supply of metal structures to the assembly point, including lifting to a height, installation according to the technological scheme, verification of compliance and accuracy, temporary docking. The final stage in Construction includes fixing elements with anchors and other types of connections, casting with concrete.

In practice, the installation of metal structures includes not only the arrangement of external forms, but also underground structures, such as foundations, wells or supporting elements. When the base is ready, the external structure is assembled.

The choice of the type of fasteners for metal structures is at the discretion of the customer, determined by the construction technology or the recommendations of the design company. In practice, anchor bolts, welding or rivets are used. The installation of metal structures is a responsible process that requires careful preparation of the material base and project documentation.

Rules for installation work

Construction from metal structures is regulated by profile standards, in particular, SNiP III - B.5 - 62. The rules describe the manufacturing technology, methods of acceptance and installation of products.

Ready-to-use steel structures are assembled sections fixed on the base. The spans are formed from beams, columns, prefabricated trusses. The distance between elements or finished shapes is determined by the design parameters. The frame is additionally reinforced with stiffeners (ties). The trusses are fastened to the foundations with the help of anchor bolts or on embedded parts by welding.

Installation according to SNiP

The installation of structures at the place of operation is carried out from ready-made factory forms. Elements are assembled under production conditions from trusses, columns, wall crossbars, then welded and tested for compliance with strength characteristics. In the field, the quality of such control is reduced, in addition, manufacturers guarantee the use of standard hardware that corresponds to the strength class according to GOST 1970 7798. The best way to fasten the component metal structures is welding.

Regulations for the performance of work according to SNiP:

  • The installation of metal molds is carried out in accordance with the approved project documentation;
  • The transition to the next stage of construction and installation work is prohibited without completing the fastening manipulations in the previous section (section);
  • Work with metal structures should take place under conditions of mechanization of the production process, including the storage of the material base and intermediate assembly manipulations;
  • When the temperature drops, auxiliary equipment with the appropriate climate class should be provided;
  • The organization of installation work must be carried out by a person with the appropriate level of clearance;
  • Construction from metal structures is carried out in large blocks, including with the methodical supply of the material base to the work area (conveyor method);
  • When performing installation, preparatory work, cutting and welding, one should be guided by paragraphs 1.11 (section storage of materials for welding) to 1.80 (section "riveting") SNiP III-18-75 "Metal structures";
  • The progress of construction is recorded in the logs of installation, welding and setting of high-strength bolts;

The procedure for preparing for work, the requirements for arranging foundations

Among the important areas that ensure safety at the construction site and the quality of the finished structure, compliance with the requirements of SNiP in terms of the phased implementation of all manipulations:

  • The construction of temporary structures, the arrangement of access roads, the arrangement of sites for the operation of units, machinery and equipment, the commissioning of actuators and other preparatory work must be completed by the start of installation;
  • By the beginning of the work, it is necessary to check the readiness of the foundation, attachment points of metal structures, supports;
  • The construction of the layout of the alignment axes, which will be needed to fasten the elements, is duplicated by marks on the structures themselves in the zone of docking with the foundation, but outside the support contour. This process is carried out in accordance with the requirements of the relevant chapters of SNiP, which regulate geodetic work;
  • In the tabular part of Appendix 10 of SNiP III-18-75 "Metal Structures", the permissible deviations from the design parameters of the stakeout axes of supports, foundations or foundations, - points of attachment of metal structures, are specified;
  • Places for installation of anchor bolts, embedded parts used for fastening structural elements, are concreted simultaneously with the arrangement of the foundation.

Rules for installing support columns on the foundations of buildings and structures:

  • For the installation of elements, pre-prepared steel plates reinforced with cement mortar should be used. The surface of the supporting bases must be planed in cases where milled ends;
  • Installation of metal structures can be carried out on foundations, equipped up to the design marks on the base of the columns without concreting. The method is used in the case of using milled soles of supporting elements;
  • Structural elements can be mounted on calibrated anchor points in the foundations themselves. Upon completion of the installation, the docking points are poured with cement mortar.

In the tabular part of Appendix 11 of SNiP III-18-75 "Metal Structures", the allowable deviations from the design parameters of the surfaces of foundations and foundations, support points and the location of fasteners, hardware are given.

During the delivery and storage of anchor bolts, for the entire period until the start of installation, the integrity of their threaded part should be ensured. To comply with the requirement, protective caps, special grease or felt are used.

Strengthening of the joints of metal structures by concreting is carried out after obtaining the appropriate permission in writing from the general contractor.

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